In rapidly changing environments, where land-use transformations and deforestation meet agricultural intensification, population growth and densification, the level of interaction between animals and humans is increased, posing higher risk of pathogen spillover and disease outbreak. Therefore, it is essential to monitor animal and human health in an integrated surveillance network to enable rapid detection of pathogens affecting livestock and quick deployment of control measures. At global level, the tripartite of FAO, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and WHO are operating the Global Early Warning System for Health Threats and Emerging Risks at the Human-Animal-Ecosystem Interface (GLEWS). The three sister organisations pool their data on disease occurrence from their respective channels and jointly monitor, analyse and model trends to send early warning messages to the affected regions. The system monitors six non-zoonotic and 19 zoonotic diseases.

Another disease category strongly influenced by urban transformations and rural-urban interactions is vector-borne diseases.