They usually only hold land informally. They pursue both subsistence agriculture and commercial agriculture for local markets and also grow certain crops (e.g. traditional colonial goods such as cotton, coffee or cocoa) for the international markets. However, most products (food crops) are not internationally marketable owing to inferior quality, the obligation to provide proof of origin and a lack of access to markets. These enterprises generally operate risk-aversely and input-extensively, and they have considerable difficulty obtaining formal credits. They are quite able to produce an income above the poverty line and are often also capable of growth. They can build reserves to make up for failed harvests.

Rural World 3: Subsistence agricultural households and micro-enterprises

These households probably represent the largest share of households in rural areas. Production is dedicated mainly to home consumption, although households still have to buy substantial amounts of food additionally. Some products yield a surplus to finance food and other purchases, although non-agricultural activities are a crucial component of income.