First, they assess the impact of incorporating Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to overcome extension agents’ low levels of technical education and training. The extension agents are provided with tablets equipped with specialised software with information about soil testing, seed recommendations, fertiliser application, and identification and treatment of crop diseases. Second, the authors test whether performance-based incentives can incentivise extension workers to make use of information available in the software to increase their effectiveness. The authors assess the impact of these features by randomly assigning a group of 20 villages to each of the following treatment arms:
1) regular extensions services, 2) ICT extension, and 3) ICT plus incentives extension. By measuring the value added of components 2)and 3), they compare the effect of the second treatment to the first and the third treatment to the second and first.

Sometimes, programme implementers are interested in whether the dosage of a treatment makes a difference to the measured outcomes.