The implications are that under the updated system, smallholder farmers had to rely on multiple sources of information from a variety of extension service providers and, where applicable, pay for services.

ICTs in extension

While traditional media such as radio and television have played a major role in extension and development communication, growth in the Internet and increased access to and use of mobile technology are seen as game-changing. The architecture of information communication has moved from centralised to decentralised and has become increasingly democratised in the digital age. “Communication technologies” are converging, while multiple communication channels are still used for agricultural and rural development. Redesigning and upgrading the infrastructure and building capacity of stakeholders to take advantage of the new ICTs is critical.

Radio: Making mass media more participatory

The outreach of the traditional media, such as radio, in communicating with vast rural audiences has been enhanced with new ICTs.