This article draws on examples from various case studies and published papers to demonstrate the diversity of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) applications used and derive some lessons for future intervention.

The changing policy context: Implications for extension delivery 

Policy shifts and fiscal austerity programmes have impacted negatively on extension services, especially on public extension, in developing countries. This can be elaborated using the case of Kenya, where policy shifts over the period 1965 – 2007 led to changes in extension services from being a centrally managed, government controlled service to a partially privatised, demand-driven and diversified, pluralistic system with multiple actors. Public extension was expected to link farmers with other research and extension service providers and remain free of charge for smallholder subsistence farmers. Most of the budgetary allocation for extension was used for the salaries of the 5,000 plus extension staff employed by the ministry (Bolo & Makini, 2012).