This effect is statistically significant, but lower than what one might expect when looking at the yield gains. The reason is that SRI requires more labour and management time from farmers, which has to be subtracted from other economic activities. While the revenue from rice production increases through SRI adoption, the income from other sources is somewhat reduced. It should be stressed, however, that the data refer to the early stages of SRI adoption in Timor Leste. With more experience, management time can possibly be reduced, which could lead to higher household income gains in the future.

Interestingly, when splitting up the sample by farm size, income gains for smaller farms of less than two hectares are larger than those for relatively larger farms. Household income effects of SRI have not been analysed previously in the scientific literature.


SRI and other NRM technologies clearly have the potential to increase productivity while reducing the use of external inputs.