Unlike standardised input packages, NRM technologies involve the adaptation of practices to local conditions. As a result, best practices in one place cannot necessarily be generalised. This is especially true in smallholder agriculture due to highly diversified resource endowments and farm management options. Location-specific adaptation may result in adoption patterns and impacts that vary from one place to another. This also makes impact assessment more complicated, contributing to controversies over the potential role of NRM technologies on a broader scale. The ongoing scientific and public debate reveals that there are important knowledge gaps concerning the ramifications of NRM technologies in theory and practice.

SRI principles and components

In rice production, SRI is one of the most prominent natural resource management technologies. The aim of SRI is to contribute to higher yields with lower amounts of external inputs such as seed, water and fertiliser through better management of irrigation, soil fertility and pests.