For some cities, this is becoming a pressing issue as they face an increasing number of extreme weather events and are having to deal with food insecurity situations. Considering the fact that 40 per cent of the world population live within a distance of 100 km from the coast, extreme weather events such as hurricanes, typhoons, tsunamis, and other natural disasters caused by climate change in general are of major concern for coastal cities.

The Pact’s framework for action as well as the New Urban Agenda state the importance of balancing urban and rural interests for sustainable development. The challenge for rural areas is that their voices are inevitably weaker than those of the cities with larger populations. To better balance this dynamics, more advocacy and awareness is necessary on the ecosystem services that rural – agricultural and forest land – can provide to urban dwellers. Cleaner water and air can be provided by strategically placed and managed agricultural land in rural hinterlands.