This movement encourages peer-to-peer exchanges of information between farmers. It prioritises local solutions relying on local resources. And it transforms the relationship between the farmer and the “expert” from the department of agriculture or from the international agency, not in order to reverse it and to replace one hierarchy with another, but in order to move towards the co-construction of knowledge, as most clearly illustrated by participatory plant breeding.

More than a set of agronomic techniques

It is only if we see agroecology as something else than a particular set of agronomic techniques that we can understand the opposition that it faces. Indeed, as a branch of agronomics that borrows from ecology to replace the act of farming within the ecosystems in which that acts takes place, agroecology is particularly well-suited to meet the challenges of the day. In our still dominant industrial farming system, it takes about ten calories of fossil energy to produce one calorie of food, a clearly unsustainable approach as we reach peak gas and peak oil.