However, community-acquired MRSA is becoming more prevalent. As S. aureus can be zoonotic, the study investigates the transmission of MRSA from cows and buffalos into the human population, considering three pathways: direct contact, via shared surfaces, via milk products. These transmission pathways are mediated by individual (and community) hygiene behaviour as well as food safety regulations.

 

Zoonotic diseases – the pathogen spillover

Zoonotic diseases, which are transmitted between humans and animals, are a key theme of One Health. According to the US Center for Disease Control (CDC), zoonotic diseases make up six out of ten known infectious diseases and three out of four emerging diseases (recently appearing infections). A great majority of the global epidemics of the past decades, Ebola, Zika, SARS, influenza (bird flu, swine flu, etc.) are of zoonotic origin, while the globalised movement of humans, animals and materials is compounding the risk of pandemic outbreaks. The ‘pathogen spillover’ (the transfer from animal to human) often occurs from wildlife via livestock to the human population, thus at the rural-urban interface.