It is noteworthy in this context that, according to World Food Programme (WFP) standards, Kyrgyzstan is not so food insecure that it justifies interventions by the WFP, but because of the importance of migration and remittances, Kyrgyzstan is considered very vulnerable, so that the WFP remains in the country. For governments, migration provides a biased picture of their countries’ economic situation due to the constant inflow of money. Governments may become lazy doing reforms, as they count on the steady inflow of remittances.

On the other hand, returning migrants bring new skills from abroad, chiefly in construction, services, catering and trade. Migration has sparked improvements in communication infrastructure, and the need for and pressure of reliable and efficient money transfers has resulted in an enhanced banking system.

No reliability

After disintegration of the Soviet Union, the newly independent countries fell into a severe economic crisis, and industry largely broke down.