One way in which this takes place is via development partnerships with the private sector (DPPs) – for example under the umbrella of the develoPPP.de programme, which has been running since 1999. Integrated development partnerships with the private sector (iDPPs) are another option; as the name suggests, such partnerships involve co-operation with private-sector companies being integrated into bilateral technical co-operation projects. In both DPPs and iDPPs the partners contribute their resources and share the risks in order to achieve a common goal. The services of technical co-operation are usually provided in kind, so that only very rarely do the companies receive cash. The projects of the above-mentioned Green Innovation Centres take the form of iDPPs. For example, one of the centres is working to improve the milk value chain in Tunisia: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) and the large Tunisian dairy company Délice are together developing training courses that help smallholders improve their milk production and enhance their entrepreneurial skills.