It is a supplementary agreement to the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and aims at sharing the benefits from the utilisation of genetic resources in a fair and equitable way. Ratified by 114 parties, which include 113 UN member states and the European Union, it entered into force on the 12th October 2014.


The above-mentioned indirect implications for Africa are expected to be substantial. Challenges posed by climate change such as changes in pest and disease problems or abiotic stress (e.g. droughts, soil salinity) require responses where NPBTs can help as they are cheaper, more precise and much faster in providing improved plants than conventional breeding techniques. Examples include maize and cow peas resistant to corn borers and other pests. One illustrative example is the outbreak of the fall armyworm in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) two years ago. The fall armyworm is a sub-species introduced from South America and not endemic to SSA.