As a consequence, tracking and tracing systems similar to what we observe in the market for organic food products could be implemented. And this could further increase the costs and results in problems known from tracking and tracing of organic food products.

These implications do not necessarily directly result in negative effects for Africa. African countries do not need to follow the decision of the CJEU or the EU regulatory framework for GMOs for their own markets. If their national legal system allows them to, African countries can use NPBTs for improving the crops they cultivate. Issues may arise related to trading crops and derived products with EU markets. The more important effect will be indirect. Many African countries follow the view of the EU when it comes to plant breeding, and they might be reluctant to approve the use of NPBTs. Within Africa, the legal status of NPBTs may differ by country and cause trade disruptions within Africa as well as in relationships with the EU and countries in other regions.