Rather, it imposes, inter alia, an authorisation requirement. Yet, crops that fall under the GMO regulation face increasing costs because an approval procedure has to be followed. Consequently, there are many calls for adjusting the EU legislation to new developments in plant breeding.

Trade obstacles

The judgement has implications not only for plant breeding and farmers in the EU, but also for imports of agricultural commodities and food products into the EU. Most imported agricultural commodities and food products derived from crops within the scope of EU GMO legislation need approval for import and processing and require labelling. This results in additional costs for those companies that export into the EU. But labelling will also be a challenge for another reason. Many of the applications of NPBTs cannot be distinguished from natural mutation in the final product. The products derived from NPBTs have the characteristic of what economists call a "credence" good, which means that the characteristic of the product cannot be identified by simple visual inspection, just like with food produced under organic labels.