Not only large-scale industrial agriculture but also smaller agricultural undertakings are now expected to lead to agricultural restructuring.

In some places, the new policies have already led to a slowdown in demolition and relocation. For example, in the county that Mr Zhang’s village belongs to, the construction of several rural communities was halted. However, his village was located too close to the county city to be affected by the policy change. Local governments were able to redefine the project as an urban renovation project. Urban renovation is a strong focus in the new policies and can tap crucial funding. Thus, for local governments, it comes in handy that urban districts in China often cover vast rural areas. At any rate, in the village in Henan, demolition and relocation proceeded under the new policies, and by now, it has become a new area in an urban sub-district.

As this example shows, it is important for us to look at the local practices of policy implementation throughout China in order to know what the new policies really do.