The cost of remediating Canadian soil and water contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbon is estimated at USD 1 billion. The Russian government has allocated USD 620 million for cleanup in three zones designated as nature reserves. Taiwan’s Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified more than 2,000 contaminated sites nationwide to date. 

Legislation relating to soil remediation is widespread, and there are efforts at local, national and world level. Fundamental to these regulations are European Union Directives such as the Environmental Liability Directive, the Water Framework Directive and the Soil Framework Directive, Superfund (United States), the Contaminated Land Management Act (New South Wales, Australia) and the Environmental Management Act (Canada).


Bedanga Bordoloi

Etali Sarmah
Al Ahmadhi, Kuwait