are to be established to initiate ecosystem recovery, reduce desertification and use the remediated soil for future engineering purposes.

The SEED project has proved successful in repairing damage to the natural landscapes. The project will be able to monitor and compare the effectiveness of various remediation approaches using the established native plant species as performance indicators.

Given ever-increasing global demand for commodities and soil ecosystem services, improving soil management could be a key opportunity for supporting sustainable economic development. Remediation technologies like thermal desorption, soil washing, bioremediation etc. are critical to controlling soil degradation, so that economic and social development can be sustained. With growing pressure on land in the developing world, the economic value of soil remediation is set to increase. However, various problems need to be tackled. In the SEED project, for instance, the enormous quantity of fresh water for the soil washing technology poses a new challenge, and the project struggled to source water in summer months and had to scout for recycled water.