Usually, in such market-based RAS, the definition of RAS contents is up to the market stakeholders. This renders RAS particularly prone to neglecting ecological and social priorities (e.g. focus on short-term productivity increases through high input agriculture). Hence, ODA should carefully monitor ecological effects while in parallel promoting sustainable agricultural practices and strengthening advocacy capacities of the selected target group.

Inclusion of ecological and social aspects in project planning and capacity development. ODA increases its potential to steer RAS systems’ inclusiveness by defining gender and social equity indicators right at the beginning, by monitoring them over time, and by creating affirmative action. Further, ODA can positively affect natural resource management by influencing not only the institutional setting of RAS, but also the content of RAS e.g. through well-directed capacity development of RAS providers. Similarly, capacity development of RAS providers that goes beyond technical know-how and includes e.g. advocacy capacities can positively affect inclusiveness of RAS systems.

Yet it is a major challenge for ODA to effectively support public interests in RAS.