This stresses the importance of inspecting the raw product prior to storage, checking the storage structure for a residual infestation (e.g. by heat treatment) and maintaining an insect-proof structural design. To stop the immigration of most beetles, the largest opening in window frames, wire mesh gauzes, package perforations or seals should be not more than 0.5 mm. To prevent neonate larvae of stored product moths, these openings must not be larger than 0.1 mm (Kahn 1982, Adler 2004). Of course, this is quite a challenge and one of the reasons why insects find their way into stored goods so often.

What are reasons for major losses?

In general, a farmer harvesting an agricultural product will try to avoid losses once the harvest is stored. However, certain factors may favour pest attack and losses. For many years the value of grain was extremely low. This is why no one in Central Europe invested in the construction of good grain storage structures for decades.