These pressures will be exacerbated by shifts in land use for livestock production (including in peri-urban areas) that are associated with changing dietary patterns. Proper land use planning and regulation of land tenure are often missing in urban and rural governance structures in developing countries, hampering the development of urban and peri-urban agriculture. Urban sprawl will affect food security and natural resource availability in places where it causes significant loss of productive peri-urban agricultural land and contributes to degradation of environmental resources. The expected increases in the urban population in the developing world will be accompanied by a tripling in the built-up area of cities from 200,000 to 600,000 square kilometres between 2000 and 2030. The way in which cities are built up will have major implications for establishing connectivity and securing adequate rural-urban linkages.

The lack of co-ordination between governance mechanisms for food security and nutrition and those for the management of natural resources may arise from misperceptions about the economic and social roles of rural and urban areas.