Weak transport infrastructure tends to be a major constraint in low-income countries, despite the potential for rural roads to pave the way for other investments that can improve areas as a means of nutrition – such as schools, health services, and security services. Lack of paved roads and electricity also contributes to substantial post-harvest food losses along the value chain, since cooling the goods after harvesting is not secured and the transport routes become longer (see Figure 2).

Figure 2: Rural-urban linkages can help achieve improved food systems and multiple SDGs

Source: José Graziano da Silva and Shenggen Fan. 2017. Strengthening Rural-Urban Linkages to End Hunger and Malnutrition. In: IFPRI, Global Food Policy Report 2017, page 17.

Weak governance of natural resources

Inadequate shared governance of natural resources tends to weaken links between rural and urban areas. With existing predominant production methods, rising food demand will increase pressures on natural resources and the environment (see also article "Push and pull relations between villages and cities from a rural perspective").