Poor transportation infrastructure can make it too costly for smallholders to sell their produce downstream to urban consumers and can contribute to greater food losses and waste. Strong value chains are important for improving livelihoods, food security and nutrition.

How broken linkages weaken domestic development: The rice value chain in Nigeria
Rice has become one of Nigeria’s most-consumed staples, and the country has made boosting rice production a priority. Yet 60 per cent of rice purchased in urban areas is imported because of consumer concerns about locally produced rice. These concerns include inconsistencies in quality, labelling, and taste – problems that arise from poor vertical integration in the domestic rice value chain. For rice, post-harvest processing (milling, parboiling and cleaning) and marketing (weighing, bagging and branding) play key roles. Yet with a highly fragmented domestic value chain, the many small and medium-sized rice millers that process 80 per cent of Nigerian rice have varied skills and degrees of access to services and information, and little scope for upgrading varieties or technologies.