Rural Economic Development, Volume 12 No 2/2005
Sub-Saharan Africa - Fish Resources - Renewable Energiest

Sub-Saharan Africa

The Millennium Development Goals and Africa - Is Africa in danger?

Africa in danger? Seldom has a question mark appended to an outspoken title been so superfluous. Given the HIV/AIDS infection rates, ongoing conflicts and acute breakdown of government in certain countries, the title should really be «Africa in Danger!» This is also true when applied to the Millennium Development Goals. Sub-Saharan Africa is the region in the world that will fail to meet most of these goals by the year 2015.

Dr. Stefan Mair
Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik - German Institute for International and Security Affairs - Berlin, Germany

A reform agenda for Africa. Initial success and criticism New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD).

The «New Partnership for Africa's Development» (NEPAD) was launched in October 2001.Together with the newly created African Union (AU), this has given the pan-African concept a newlease of life.The NEPAD programme stands for political renewal, peace, security and sustainable growth. A key component is the
African Peer Review Mechanism in which 26 states are already taking part.
Dr. Konrad Melchers
Editor - Zeitschrift Entwicklungspolitik
Frankfurt am Main, Germany

The P-wave rolls over Africa

Madagascar recently became the twelfth African country to reach completion point under the regulations of the Enhanced Initiative for Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC II), thus giving it an irrevocable right to debt relief. In parallel with HIPC II, a new development architecture began to evolve as of 1999 which, on paper, has classical beauty: Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) form the roof. Largescale sector programmes are the pillars of support. Harmonization of donor procedures provides the struts that keep everything in place.
Helmut Asche
Deutsche Gesellschaft für TechnischeZusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH
Eschborn, Germany

New forms of development cooperation with Africa A new perspective for rural development

Increasingly, development-policy dialogue between African governments and donors is taking place in the context of joint financing programmes designed to bolster poverty reduction strategies. Measures geared to the promotion of rural development have a key role to play here.This article illustrates how rural development can be supported in the framework of programme-oriented joint financing and highlights some political aspects of this new form of development
Nassir Djafari
KfW Development Bank - Competence Centre Development Economics
Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Regional Economic Communities. A source of hope for economic development in Africa?

Regional Economic Communities. A source of hope for economic development in Africa? In view of the extremely weak status of African states within the global economy, hopes of strengthening the continent's position are repeatedly pinned on the concept of regional cooperation. Putting behind the many past
disappointments with unsuccessful economic communities, this idea has been enjoying a considerable renaissance since the mid-1990s.This is taking place in a context of moves towards regionalization in other parts of the world and
in parallel with globalization and trade liberalization within the scope of the WTO.

Professor Dr. Rolf Hofmeier
Institute for African Affairs (IAK)
Hamburg, Germany

HIV/AIDS - a growing threat for rural Africa

The majority of countries that have been hit hardest by HIV/AIDS in Africa are dependent on agriculture and the export of agricultural produce. In recent years, this scourge has been spreading unabated throughout rural regions, leading to a decline in food security and a rise in rural poverty. Appropriate policies and targeted agricultural research are needed to mitigate the negative impacts of HIV/AIDS on the economic situation of countries and households in rural regions.
Gesa Kupfer

Klaus Pilgram
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH
Eschborn, Germany

Reducing poverty through cotton-growing

The WTO negotiations in Cancún made it clear that the USA and the EU can no longer preside over the elimination of trade restrictions on their own and if more compromises are to be reached in future, G20 involvement is essential. Yet another new development at Cancún was the fact that, in spite of their
sideline role in the global economy, the four, very small African countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Chad and Mali succeeded in putting the issue of cotton subsidies on the agenda.
Roger Peltzer
German Investment and Development Company (DEG)
KfW banking group - Cologne, Germany

Regional Research Networks in Africa

Research networks, programmes and projects have been created on the basis of the fact that most African national agricultural research systems (NARS) are small and agricultural research is increasingly characterized by substantial economies of scale. Regionally coordinated initiatives therefore provide a means of aggregating effort across a number of small national domains into a research domain that can be addressed at an appropriate scale.
Dorothy Mukhebi
Coordinator - Regional Agricultural Information Network (RAIN) 
Association for Strengthening Agricultural Research in Eastern and Central Africa - ASARECA - Entebbe, Uganda

Fish Resources

How important is the fishery sector for the developing world?

«We feed the nation» was how Dr Sloans Chimatiro, Malawi's Director of Fisheries, once described the significance of the fishery sector. And he was not exaggerating: Fish is a far more important source of food in the developing world than in the industrialized countries. The trade in fishery products is continually expanding, with the developing countries now accounting for a US Dollar (USD) 17.4 billion share of the world's total trade figure (USD 56 billion) in this sector. More than 50 percent of the world's fish exports now come from the developing countries.
Dr. Uwe Scholz
Berthold Schirm
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH
Eschborn, Germany

Integrated Coastal Zone Management: The panacea for the future of the coastal zones?

Integrated Coastal Zone Management is a holistic approach to regulating the use of coastal zones.The example of mangrove use in Pará, Brazil, shows that implementing this concept makes very tough demands on policy-makers, administrations and the users of coastal zones and that successes can only be achieved over the long term.
Martin Foth
InWEnt - Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung GmbH Capacity Building International - Germany
Bremen Regional Center
Bremen, Germany

Gesche Krause
Center for Tropical Marine Ecology (ZMT) - Bremen, Germany

Combining sustainable resource use and fisheries access agreements. From cash-for-access towards true partnership.

Fishing is today a true global economic activity, and distant water fleets, fishing from European countries, China, Philippines etc., are competing for access to a scarce and diminishing resource. Distant water fishing is a significant way of sourcing the production lines of the processing industry.Tunas, prawns and small pelagics are often sourced by the bilateral fisheries agreements between the EU and developing countries.These agreements give rise to several questions:Who is responsible for overfishing to the expense of who? What are their impacts on
local resources, economies and livelihoods?
Espen Nordberg
World Wide fund for Nature, Denmark
Copenhagen, Denmark

Tensions between the EU and West Africa off Africa's coasts. Are EU access agreements harming Africa's artisanal fisheries?

West Africa's fishery sector cannot be simply characterized by the alleged antagonism of local artisanal fishing and industrial foreign fleets. Realities are more complex - as is the West African coastal states' relationship with the EU.The two sides may have conflicting interests, but each is dependent, in its own way, on the region's abundant aquatic resources - and both are bound by a common framework of international law.
Wolfgang Scharm,
GOPA - Bad Homburg v.d.H., Germany

The role of aquaculture in rural development

Rural development has various dimensions but it is particularly the development of the agricultural sector, which is widely believed to provide the main impetus not only for reducing poverty and hunger but also for ensuring food security for all.The various types of aquaculture form an important component within agricultural and farming systems development.This paper covers both inland areas and coastal zones with emphasis on developing countries.
Dr.Matthias Halwart
Fisheries Department Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations(FAO) - Rome, Italy

Sustainable agro-pisciculture in Malawi

Integrated agropisciculture has great potential to contribute towards food and nutritional security in countries by allowing farmers to produce fish which is highly nutritious to augment carbohydrate rich staple diets and intensifying crop production and reducing agricultural production risk through better farm water and nutrient management.
Daniel Jamu
WorldFish Center - Zomba, Malawi

Sloans Chimatiro
Department of Fisheries - Lilongwe, Malawi

Fisheries Ecolabelling: Opportunities for developing countries

The usual response to the growing concern at the state of the world's fisheries resources has been to implement more command and control measures to regulate fishing activity.These types of measures embody disincentives aimed at preventing overfishing and ecosystem damage.While fishery regulatory instruments have a very important place in ensuring the sustainable extraction of fisheries resources, the continuing decline in the state of fisheries suggests a need to compliment these measures with more innovative mechanisms, of which one is ecolabelling.
Oluyemisi Oloruntuyi
Programme Manager - Developing World Fisheries Marine Stewardship Council London, United Kingdom

Renewable Energies

Cooperation between Germany and developing countries - Jump-starting renewables

At the 2002 World Summit in Johannesburg, German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder announced a programme entitled «Sustainable Energy for Development». Between 2003 and 2007 the German government will provide 1 billion euros to expand cooperation with developing countries.The aim is to forge a strategic energy partnership. In addition, at the «Renewables 2004» conference in Bonn, the German Chancellor pledged up to 500 million euros for a special renewables and energy efficiency facility.
Dr Stephan Schmitz
Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development
Bonn, Germany

Water: An important energy source?

At the «renewables 2004» conference in Bonn hydropower was again subject to many controversies with regard to the environment and water resources management. In their political declaration the 154 countries present at the
conference considered hydropower as one important technology. In Africa hydro energy has a huge but yet untapped potential. Impacts on the environment can be mitigated if appropriate measures are being taken from the first beginning of a project.
Syda Bbumba
Minister of Energy and Mineral Development
Kampala, Uganda

Does it promote both climate protection and rural development?

The main goal in promoting renewable energy (RE) in rural areas should not be its relatively minor contribution towards global climate protection, but rather its contribution to local development and the fight against poverty. Therefore, the most promising approach is one that aims to increase productivity and improve quality of life, and in which RE technologies are combined with income-raising activities. In this way, the problem of how to finance RE technologies can also be overcome in the long term.
Matthias Krause
German Development Institute
Bonn, Germany

Renewable energy in rural areas Reduced poverty and improved living conditions thanks to RE?

Using renewable energy (RE) in remote rural areas creates many benefits. It contributes considerably to people's well-being and helps raise the standard of living of rural families. But electricity from RE on its own does not eliminate poverty. A supply of electricity can only help reduce poverty if other framework conditions in rural areas are changed at the same time and if poor households receive direct support.
Marlene Richter
Majorca, Spain

Dr. Ulrich Frings
Gräfenberg, Germany