Financing sustainable forest use

Where do the problems of financing sustainable forest management really lie? The international community has been addressing this issue for almost ten years, through several stages of the UN forest policy dialogue, beginning with the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests (IPF: 1995 - 1997), followed by the Intergovernmental Forum on Forests (IFF: 1997 - 2000) and continuing today in the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF).
 
Claus-Michael Falkenberg
Hamburg
Germany
Claus-Michael.Falkenberg@t-online.de

Archive, Edition 2004/01

Public and Private Services

Public and private roles in the provision of rural services

In recent years, there has been growing interest in alternatives to the standard model of rural services that are designed, financed and delivered through a central government ministry or agency. This is associated with reappraisal of the role of the state and a shift towards economic efficiency and market-based solutions. This paper looks at the underlying principles used to determine public and private roles in service delivery, and practical issues involved in applying this framework.
 
Stephen Akroyd
David Hoole
Oxford Policy Management
Oxford
Great Britain
e-mail stephen.akroyd@opml.co.uk

Ways out of the vacuum. The future of agricultural services in Africa.

In many partner countries of international cooperation, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, agricultural services sectors are currently in a state of upheaval. Reforming agricultural services means redefining the role of the state and the type and scope of tasks it is responsible for. Services to support agriculture are also being transferred to non-governmental service providers.
 
Helmut Albert
Helmut.Albert@gtz.de
Andreas Springer-Heinze
Andreas.Springer-Heinze@gtz.de
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH
Eschborn
Germany

What role can the private sector take on in rural areaPrivate-sector service providers even for the poor?s?

The provision of infrastructure and services is unthinkable today without private-sector participation, and this is also the case in developing countries. However, without initial support to get underway, private-sector solutions in rural areas and in social infrastructure are slow to establish themselves. By gearing development cooperation towards structural impact and by promoting municipal development, it is possible to shape the appropriate framework conditions and foster innovative approaches.
 
Dr. Wolfgang Bichmann
Vice President Social Infrastructure,
Social Policies, Environment
KfW Group
Frankfurt am Main
Germany
Wolfgang.Bichmann@kfw.de

The Kilifi District Development Programme in Kenya. Communities as public service providers.

Throughout the world, international cooperation is increasingly focusing on the importance of organized communities for rural development. Community Driven Development is one of the World Bank's three declared priority areas. In an article published in «agriculture & rural development» No. 1/2003, Uwe Otzen described community development as «the key to reducing poverty». The present article backs up this thesis.
 
Walter Salzer
Königstein
Germany
salzer@12move.de
The author is providing consulting services to the Kilifi District Development Programme (KDDP) on behalf of the GTZ.

Social health insurance in Senegal

To most people in developing countries the term «social health insurance» is unknown. However, the mutual health organizations (MHOs; mutuelles de santé) in Senegal show that by promoting solidarity it is possible to protect the poor more effectively against the financial consequences of illness.
 
Dr. Johannes Jütting
Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
Development Centre
Paris
France
johannes.JUTTING@oecd.org

Services by the people for the people. Farmer organizations in Mali.

Several farmer organizations in Mali have joined together to form a national association. These organizations work together with government agencies and agricultural research institutes and also offer agricultural extension services to farmers. Their efforts are directed towards producing certified quality seed and to enhancing agricultural productivity without support from the Malian state.
 
Denis Pesche
Executive Secretary
Inter-Réseaux Développement Rural
Paris
France
Denis-pesche@inter-reseaux.org

Forest Use and Conservation

Forests and international conventions - where do we stand in 2003?

Since the 1980s, the dramatic loss of forests worldwide has been of concern to the expert community and the wider public alike. Since then, plans of action have been devised to counter this degradation. Moreover, since the 1990s governments have engaged in intense negotiations on legal instruments to conserve the forest. The article takes stock of achievements over the past ten years and discusses options for future action.
 
Matthias Schwoerer
Head of sustainable forestry and international forest conservation division at the
German Federal Ministry of Consumer Protection, Food and Agriculture
Bonn
Germany
Matthias.Schwoerer@bmvel.bund.de

Sustainable forest management in the Congo Basin - Is time running out?

Every year 15 million hectares of the world's forests are destroyed. The key causes are structural weaknesses in numerous countries, and inappropriate forest management policies. To counteract further destruction of the forested areas of the Congo Basin, the seven riparian states - Cameroon, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, the Central African Republic, Chad and Equatorial Guinea - declared their common intention to improve the protection of these forests as part of their commitment to the Yaoundé Declaration.
 
Dr. Uschi Eid
Parliamentary State Secretary
in the Federal Ministry for
Economic Cooperation and Development
Berlin
Germany

Nature conservation beyond boundaries. Managing protected areas and buffer zones.

Nature conservation today not only helps conserve biodiversity and ecosystems, but also promotes the development of rural regions and reduces the poverty of their inhabitants. Buffer zones around nature reserves play an important part, where sustainable forms of land use include wildlife management.
 
Dr. Christian Ruck
Member of Parliament
Deutscher Bundestag
Berlin
Germany
christian.ruck@bundestag.de
 
Dr. Thomas Petermann
InWEnt - Capacity Building International, Germany
Department Environment, Natural Resources and Food
Zschortau (near Leipzig)
Germany
thomas.petermann@inwent.org.de
 
Dr. Wolf Krug
Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment
University College London
London
Great Britain
wolf.krug@swala.de

The Bosawas Biosphere Reserve in Nicaragua. Buffer zones: Reconciling people, fauna and forests.

The Bosawas Biosphere Reserve is under threat from illegal exploitation and inappropriate use. At the same time, the region is considered a biodiversity «hotspot». A national plan of action backed by international development cooperation aims to conserve the remaining forests by integrating - primarily in the buffer zones - arable farming, animal husbandry and forest management.
 
Robert Dilger
Wilfried Leupolz
Proyecto Bosawas-SETAB-GTZ/KfW
Managua
Nicaragua
bosawas@tmx.com.ni

Illegal logging. How the EU can tackle forest crime.

Around the world, criminal exploitation and trade in forest resources are destroying forest ecosystems, undermining the livelihoods of local communities and depriving governments of much-needed revenue. Timber traders and powerful companies involved in processing, shipping and dealing in forest products operate at an international level. The European Union (EU) has expressed its concern for the influx of illegally-sourced forest products into the European market and is on the brink of taking action to tackle the problem.
 
Chantal Marijnissen,
trade policy officer
FERN
Brussels
Belgium
chantal@fern.org

How certification helps: Sustainable forest management does not come naturally

The Central European tradition of sustainable forest management going back centuries may bring us to believe that sustainability comes naturally in the forest sector. In fact, managing a forest is a risk-laden venture, and trying to do so sustainably is even more of a challenge. To obtain a sustainability label such as FSC certification, extremely high standards must be met. This certification is based on sustainability as defined in the Rio Conventions and, as such, considerably more is involved than simply letting trees regenerate.
 
Dr. Dietrich Burger
Katrin Gothmann
Barbara Lang
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH
Eschborn
Germany
 
dietrich.burger@gtz.de

EU Enlargement

From transition to EU membership

The ten central and eastern European countries that are scheduled to join the EU in 2004 have had ten years to lay the groundwork for this step. Beforehand, however, they had to undergo far-reaching processes of transition. Simultaneously restructuring the economy and the political landscape along with democratic, free-market principles has meant an enormous effort for the countries concerned.
 
Professor Dr. Klaus Frohberg
Centre for Development Research
University of Bonn
Bonn
Germany
k.frohberg@uni-bonn.de

The EU of 25 - the world's biggest internal market: Opportunity or threat for developing countries?

In the context of its eastern enlargement, the EU decided in 1997 to accept ten new accession candidates. The debate so far has focused on the consequences of enlargement on the EU 15 and the prospective new members; impacts on developing countries have not been high on the agenda. The debate on such impacts will concentrate on agriculture, which is of particular relevance for developing countries.
 
Professor Dr. Franz Heidhues
Sabine Daude
University of Hohenheim
Institute of Agricultural Economics and Social Sciences in the Tropics and Subtropics (490a)
Stuttgart
Germany
Heidhues@uni-hohenheim.de

The enlarged EU and the WTO: Responsibility for North-South equity?

The accession of ten new Member States to the EU in 2004 will create an economic area of 500 million people and huge economic significance. The EU's total agricultural land will increase by 55 percent. The liberalization of world markets that is also currently under way makes it difficult to gauge the direct consequences that EU enlargement will have on developing countries.
 
Eberhard Hauser
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH
Rural Development Division
Eschborn
Germany
Eberhard.Hauser@gtz.de

Technical cooperation in preparation for EU accession. Can development programmes serve as models?

Three development programmes, SAPARD, Twinning and Transform, support the accession countries in preparing for EU membership. Are these instruments successful, and can they be transferred to other partner countries?
 
Dr. Detlev Böttcher
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH
Eschborn
Germany
Detlev.Boettcher@gtz.de
 
Mike Bartels
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH
GTZ Berlin Twinning Office in the Federal Ministry of Finance
Berlin
Germany
www.gtz.de/twinning-buero

Bulgaria's agricultural sector prepares for EU accession

With the accession of Bulgaria in 2007, another agricultural country is joining the EU. In preparation for accession, Bulgaria is working hard to improve its infrastructure and the standard of living in rural areas. The SAPARD programme, through which the EU is supporting sustainable development in rural areas, has become a key instrument in the Bulgarian context.
 
Meglena Plugtschieva
Deputy Minister
Ministry for Agriculture and Forestry
of the Republic of Bulgaria
Sofia
Bulgaria
mplugtschieva@nug.bg

Preparing for EU accession. Capacity building in Romania's agricultural sector.

Romania submitted its application for EU membership in 1995. This has had a major impact upon policy in the agricultural and food sector. InWEnt has been commissioned by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) to support the accession process by means of dialogue and training measures aimed at building the necessary «knowledge capacities». In just three years, significant successes have been scored.
 
Jens Adler
InWEnt - Capacity Building International, Germany
Natural Resource Management, Structural Change and Agrarian Reforms Division
Zschortau (near Leipzig)
Germany
jens.adler@inwent.org
 
Dr. Wolfgang Kunze
Team Consult
Feuchtwangen
Germany
Kunzetc@t-online.de