The pillars of a sustainable global energy system

A turnaround in energy policy on a global scale is an elementary precondition to sustainable development. Globalized flows of commodities and capital as well as worldwide risks such as climate change or disastrous reactor accidents, mean that this precondition can only be met by a joint effort of North and South. We are still far removed from that, however. Energy wastage in the North and energy shortage in the South are undeniable signals of the unsustainable trends in the global energy system. A scenario-based look into the future shows that this situation can be changed. There is no lack of viable visions, but of resolute implementation.
 
Professor Dr. Peter Hennicke
Acting President of the
Wuppertal Institute for Climate Environment Energy
Wuppertal
Germany
e-mail: Peter.Hennicke@wupperinst.org

Archive, Edition 2003/01

Development policy

Community development - the key to reducing poverty in Africa's rural regions

This article highlights the central role of Africa's rural communities in implementing poverty-reducing rural development strategies. As 70 to 80 per cent of poor people in sub-Saharan Africa live in rural regions, the progressive expansion and consolidation of rural community structures is a prerequisite for poverty reduction. Without this institution-building, there can be no broad-based socio-economic development or grassroots democratization, nor can innovative funding programmes be implemented. Community development may well prove to be the key to a new and more effective partnership with African countries.
 
Dr. Uwe Otzen
German Development Institute - GDI
Bonn, Germany
Uwe.Otzen@die-gdi.de

Perspectives on agricultural development policy

One result of the collapse of the Soviet system has been a decline in the priority of development cooperation (DC). In particular, spending on agricultural development has dwindled to about
6.5percent of official DC. This is compounded by the fact that the agricultural policies of the industrialized nations continue to lead to distorted world market prices, which have particularly negative impacts on agricultural development in the smaller developing countries. Development policy will not become a focus of political interest again until the issue of the world's food supply becomes a major security problem.
 
Dr. Hartmut Brandt
German Development Institute - GDI
Bonn
Germany
Hartmut.Brandt@die-gdi.de

Germany and the World Summit on Sustainable Development

A World Summit on poverty reduction and globalization

The World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg was to be the starting point for renewed partnership for more peace, solidarity and justice. This »deal« cannot remain a matter for governments alone: It must include civil society - and especially business and industry - in a real and tangible way. What is needed is practical solidarity and a willingness to embark on a global partnership. To ensure that this global partnership can genuinely evolve, the needs of developing countries - poverty reduction, a fair chance in the global markets, technical cooperation, and active support in combating global problems such as AIDS and environmental degradation - must be taken seriously.
 
Ingrid-Gabriela Hoven
Federal German Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
Bonn, Germany

Ten years of sustainable development: The German federal government's sustainability strategy for »Environment, Food, Health«

In early 2001, the BSE crisis in Germany triggered off some rethinking of German agricultural policy, with the aim of restoring the population's confidence in food safety and quality; the German buzzword for this was Agrarwende - agricultural policy reform. The new-style policy is in harmony with the German government's sustainability strategy. The consumer plays a critical role on the road towards sustainable development in agriculture, since consumer demand not only influences food production but also the supply of renewable energy and of services to conserve the environment, biodiversity, the cultural landscape and village life.
 
MinDirig Dr. Dieter Blaschke
German Federal Ministry of Consumer Protection, Food and Agriculture
Head of Planning Unit
Berlin, Germany
e-mail: Dieter.Blaschke@bmvel.bund.de

Rio to Bonn/Berlin to Johannesburg: The process in Germany and its environment and development policy commitments

The 1992 Rio de Janeiro Earth Summit created the guiding principle of sustainable development in the Agenda 21 programme of action. Two important conventions ? the Climate Change Convention and the Biodiversity Convention - were also signed at the Summit, and the Rio follow-up process launched the Desertification Convention. The principle of sustainable development called upon all states to manage our natural resources in a more environmentally sound, economically viable and socially equitable manner. While much has been achieved in the past ten years, sustainable development has not succeeded in becoming a mainstream, cross-cutting theme.
 
Petra Stephan
Duisburg, Germany
Petra.Stephan@web.de

Sustainable development in Germany and Europe: The paradigms are shifting

A good decade ago, the term »sustainability« was an alien concept except among insiders. The agricultural sector can look to Agenda 21, formulated in Rio, as the best guideline on achieving efficiency and global productivity in agriculture. Sustainable development in agriculture must not, however, be equated directly with organic farming. Both systems of production, organic as well as conventional farming, can be economically, ecologically and socially sustainable if appropriately managed.
 
Philip Freiherr von dem Bussche
President German Agricultural Society (DLG)
Frankfurt am Main, Germany
e-mail: info@DLG-Frankfurt.de

A Training cooperation: building blocks towards sustainable development

The guiding principle of sustainable development has also resulted in changes to the German federal government's international training cooperation. People need to gain an understanding of the cornerstones of Agenda 21 - the environmental, social and economic dimension of sustainability. In recent years, the German government's international training institution, InWent, which succeeded the German Foundation for International Development (DSE) and the Carl Duisberg Gesellschaft (CDG) has changed its training programmes for partners in developing and transition countries from isolated individual programmes into long-term series of training courses, the aim being to pass on knowledge about complex environmental and development issues and contribute to capacity building.
 
Hinrich Mercker
InWent
Head of Environment, Natural Resources and Food Security Department
Berlin, Germany
E-mail: hinrich.mercker@inwent.org
 
Dr. Thomas Petermann
InWent
Division of Development, Natural Resources and Food Security
Zschortau International Training Centre
Zschortau, Germany
E-mail: thomas.petermann@inwent.org

Models for Johannesburg - National

The pilot project »Regions in Action - Rural areas shaping the future«
How can support for Germany's rural regions be better designed in future? What measures could bring lasting improvements in consumer orientation and ecologically and environmentally sound agriculture? Where is there a lack of incentives to create added value and new jobs in rural areas, and to interconnect urban and rural life? The pilot project launched by the German Federal Ministry for Consumer Protection, Food and Agriculture in September 2001, »Regions in Action - Rural areas shaping the future« is to help answer these questions. This project is simultaneously a pilot project under the national strategy for sustainable development, that was presented as the German input to the World Summit for Sustainable Development in Johannesburg.
 
Klaus Heider
German Federal Ministry for ConsumerProtection, Food, and Agriculture
Bonn, Germany
e-mail: Klaus.Heider@bmvel.bund.de

Models for Johannesburg: International Pilot project: Reducing world hunger with sustainable, site specific land use

Poverty, hunger and malnutrition are closely interrelated. Out of around 800 million people suffering from hunger, some two-thirds live in rural areas of developing countries. By the year 2050, global demand for food will double; this in spite of the limited supply of agricultural land and water shortage. There are numerous sources of experience with sustainable and site specific land-use systems. Their potential has not been fully tapped, primarily because the potential users of this knowledge have no means of access to the relevant information and political and economic framework conditions are often not conducive to their broad implementation. In its national strategy for sustainable development, the German federal government is planning an international pilot project for the global advancement of knowledge transfer on site specific land-use systems.
 
Dr. Christoph Kohlmeyer
German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ)
Bonn, Germany
e-mail: kohlmeyer@bmz.bund.de

Energy

Potentials and limits of renewable energy sources to supply energy to rural areas

The decentralized use of renewable energy sources in rural areas is a focus of German development cooperation in the energy sector. Priority is given to renewables because they are expected to contribute to the energy and climate policy objectives and to support solving other problems in developing countries. This article examines how far this is true for energy supplies to rural areas and where the limitations lie.
 
Dr. Rolf Posorski
Deutsche Gesellschaft
für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH
Sustainable Energy Systems Section
Eschborn
Germany
Rolf.Posorski@gtz.de
 
Dr. Paul Suding
Deutsche Gesellschaft für
Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH
Environmental Protection and
Energy Management Unit
Beijing
PR China
gtzubi@163bj.com

Renewable energy: A win-win option for off-grid electrification?

Do renewable energy technologies (RETs) offer particular opportunities for rural electrification in developing countries? Where are their limits? What about the environmental and climate protection benefits? Can the introduction of RETs trigger positive development processes? Can we expect users to be willing to pay for the introduction of RETs? To answer all these questions, it must first be ascertained whether RETs are cost-effective - both in terms of their direct benefits and in comparison to the costs of other technologies.
 
Dr. Paul Suding
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische
Zusammenarbeit GmbH
Environmental Protection and Energy
Management Unit
Beijing
PR China
gtzubi@163bj.com
 
Dr. Rolf Posorski
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische
Zusammenarbeit GmbH
Sustainable Energy Systems Section
Eschborn
Germany
Rolf.Posorski@gtz.de

Solar power generation in Morocco's villages

With over 300 days of sunshine each year, Morocco is excellently placed to use photovoltaic (PV) systems for decentralized power generation. To date, on account of the comparatively high costs, the use of such systems has been confined to the more prosperous sections of the population. The national programme for rural electrification is aimed at broad dissemination of PV systems for the basic electrification of remote areas which will not be connected to the national grid in the foreseeable future. Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW - German Financial Cooperation) is supporting this project with 5 million euros as part of its financial cooperation activities.
 
Matthias Schlund
Matthias.Schlund@kfw.de
Rolf Seifried
Rolf.Seifried@kfw.de
Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau
Palmengartenstraße 5-9
60325 Frankfurt am Main

Pumping water with solar power: Solar pumps for rural water supply

Although photovoltaic technology today is still one of the costliest ways of using solar energy, there are already many possible applications which are also economically promising. Solar pumps to pump drinking and irrigation water to remote locations not connected to the public power grid are an alternative particularly worth looking into.
 
Andreas Hahn
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit GmbH
Sustainable Energy Systems Section
Eschborn
Germany
Andreas.Hahn@gtz.de

Alternative development in drug control

The »alternative development« concept - potentials, successes and limits

The problems associated with the production, trafficking and consumption of illicit drugs are currently a major obstacle to development for many development cooperation partner countries. Alternative development projects can help reduce the illegal cultivation of opium poppy and coca. Alternative development however, is dependent on the national government's firm political commitment to drug control, and requires favourable economic and social framework conditions. Drug problems are a global phenomenon, and producer and consumer countries are equally responsible for reducing and resolving them.
 
Christoph Berg
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische
Zusammenarbeit GmbH
Drugs and Development Programme (ADE)
Eschborn, Germany
e-mail: Christoph.Berg@gtz.de

Working together in the fight against drugs in Southeast Asia

Illicit drugs are no longer a problem of one country. When drugs are produced in one country, they will affect other countries where drugs are destined and abused. It will not make the situation better if we only point the finger to blame the producing country without any concerted actions to stop the production, trafficking and consumption of illicit drugs.
 
Sanong Chinnanon
United Nations Drug Control Programme - UNDCP
Regional Centre for East Asia and the Pacific
UN Building, Radjamnern Nok Avenue
Bangkok 10200
Thailand
Sanong.chinnanon@undcp.un.or.th

The shifting of illicit drug cultivation within the Andes region

In the Andes region, the shifting of illegal drug cultivation from one country to another is occurring for many different reasons. A lack of economic alternatives, crop spraying, migration, violence, and environmental destruction are just some of the relevant factors. To address this problem, alternative development projects should aim to create framework conditions which ensure that the crops grown as an alternative to coca have sustainable access to regional, national and international markets. The high level of biodiversity in this region can also be used sustainably in the context of alternative development.
 
Cristina Hoyos
GTZ Consultant
e-mail: Cristina.Hoyos@t-online.de

Opium poppy cultivation in Afghanistan: Can Alternative Development offer viable options?

While the battle against terrorism in Afghanistan has not ended another fight is yet to be fought: against opium poppy cultivation. The UN Drug Control Programme - UNDCP - estimates that the level of opium poppy cultivation in 2002 could be as high as 65,000 hectares. The Interim Authority in Afghanistan knows it must react but it also is aware that the rural population relies heavily on opium poppy production. Alternative Development can play a part improving the lives and livelihoods of farmers whilst eliminating opium poppy cultivation. However, in Afghanistan there is a long way to go before dramatic progress can be made.
 
Michael Alexander
Consultant
Hamburg, Germany
e-mail: Michael@alexander-consult.de