Key elements include the conduct of prior impact assessments on tenure rights and the right to food of the population concerned, transparency, appropriate consultations and – in the case of indigenous communities – the obtaining of their free, prior and informed consent.

References to sustainable land use and protection of the environment. While the VGGT primarily focus on secure land rights in the context of food security, they also talk about the sustainable use of land and environmental protection, since these issues are intertwined and dependent on each other. In the chapter on investments, the environment is explicitly mentioned among the values which need to be protected against the potential risks arising from large-scale investments. Furthermore, impact assessments prior to investment projects and redistributive reforms should also cover the possible negative environmental impacts of the investments or reforms. Other references to environmental safeguards on the prevention of land degradation are contained in the chapter on consolidation and readjustment approaches as well as in the chapter on spatial planning.