An average household income of 1,066 US dollars (USD) was generated from crop diversification and other systems in the watershed compared to 734 USD in the non-watershed, reflecting an increase of 45 per cent due to watershed interventions.
The consortium’s success in Kothapally led to its replication elsewhere in Andra Pradesh and in the other Indian states of Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Jharkhand. Between 2000 and 2003, investments in new livelihood enterprises such as a seed oil mill, tree nurseries, and vermicomposting increased average income by 77 per cent in Powerguda, another poor village in Andhra Pradesh. Impact assessment studies for Andhra Pradesh’s Rural Livelihoods Program (APRLP) in five districts with improved watersheds revealed impressive returns of 608 million USD in ten years for four major crops (sorghum, groundnut, pigeonpea and maize).

Improving soil health. ICRISAT and the Government of Karnataka have opted for a knowledge-based mission mode initiative by forming a consortium and a network of stakeholders to share their knowledge on weather and soil health and improved management practices covering all the 30 districts of the state.