In Kothapally watershed, the groundwater level rose by 4.2 metres in open wells (see Figure below).

The construction of check dams was based on the community needs and executed by the villagers themselves. Due to increased groundwater recharge, an additional 200 hectares in the rainy season and about 100 hectares in the post-rainy season were cultivated with different crops and cropping sequences. The effectiveness of improved watershed technologies was evident in reduced run-off volume, peak run-off rate and soil loss and improved groundwater recharge. For instance, in Tad Fa watershed in Thailand, contour cultivation, vegetative bunds and fruit trees grown on steep slopes reduced seasonal run-off to less than half and soil loss to less than one-seventh as compared to the conventional system.

Income generation. Income generating options for the landless and women in Kothapally and other benchmark watersheds have included the setting up of village seed banks through self-help groups, value addition through seed material, product processing such as dhal making (a preparation of pulses), grading and marketability, poultry rearing for egg and meat production and vermicomposting.