On the contrary, many families remained indebted, did not manage to pay back loans and became dependant to different degrees on income from labour migration. In order to address these issues, financial literacy interventions were designed to empower migrant workers and their families to set explicit and realistic financial goals and work towards achieving them. A sound understanding of the financial options, money management and available services (savings, credit and loans linked to remittances) is a stepping stone to long-term and sustainable economic development.

Participants start to reflect on their expenditure patterns, optimise them and thereby increase savings. Anecdotal evidence confirms that participants have most benefited from reflecting on their expenditure patterns and optimising them by establishing and comparing budgets. For example, families decided to sell not needed electricity-consuming equipment, consequently reducing recurrent expenses. Bulk purchasing of food products is another successful strategy adopted by many participants. Keeping records of income and expenditure and practising participatory family decision-making and goal setting also contributes to enhance trust and build better relationships among the migrant and his/her family, as well as among the (extended) family members who benefit from remittances.