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Rural mechanisation

It’s easy to find arguments in favour of raising the degree of farm mechanisation. It’s just as easy to find examples of ambitious mechanisation concepts that failed miserably. Our authors show why and how the individual regions throughout the world have developed differently in terms of mechanisation and present examples of concepts that are really forward-looking, i.e. sustainable with a view to climate change and scarce natural resources, and that are above all also suitable for smallholders.

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Markets

Rural markets play a key role in generating rural income, especially for small farmers. But these markets are often insufficiently developed and/or small farmers cannot access them. What are the reasons behind this, how can markets be better designed to fulfil their key functions and allow effective participation by small farmers despite global change?

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Food security

Against the background of a growing world population, finite natural resources and numerous threats such as climate change and political conflict, securing world food supplies remains the challenge that the international community of states faces.


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Climate change

Agriculture is a major contributing factor to climate change; at the same time, it is one of the areas most affected by climate change, which is jeopardising global food security. Alternative practices are required both to make agriculture more resilient to and reduce its contribution to climate change.


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India

Kashmiri saffron, famous for its uniqueness in the world, is facing multiple challenges. The government is supporting the farmers with a range of measures. It recently launched a weather-based crop insurance scheme, which the farmers had long been calling for. However, it is unable to do anything about the deterioration in prices brought about by fake products.

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Agriculture

New cultures or cultivation methods can provide higher yields, better income prospects and more sustainable production. However, it is not always easy to convince farmers of the advantages and find first movers.

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Agricultural policies

Over the last few decades, notions of agricultural development and hence agricultural policies have changed, depending on the circumstances and ideas happening to determine global politics. Much has proven to be wrong if not even disastrous for rural regions and has caused precisely the opposite of what was originally intended. Our authors give accounts of the lessons learnt and of what nowadays appears to be the right approach – from the angle of development co-operation and the partner countries, research and civil society.


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Agroforestry

Agroforestry systems bear a considerable potential to reconcile income security in rural regions with the conservation of natural resources – provided that a suitable political framework is in place.

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Angola

The civil war in Angola, which has been raging for decades, has turned what once used to be Africa’s largest agricultural producer into a country that has to import the majority of its food. Now, the government and private investors are making efforts to revitalise the ailing agricultural sector. But do these large-scale projects still leave enough room for small-scale farmers?


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Asia

Rice self-sufficiency is an important political objective for many Asian countries. However, factors such as non-sustainable production methods, the rush for farmland or a lack of young peasants to look after the paddies can easily jeopardise self-sufficiency.

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Biodiversity

Many countries in the South can (still) boast an unbelievable level of biological diversity. However, awareness of their value is not always there – despite their great potential for food and nutrition security.


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Bioeconomy

Bicycle frames made of bamboo, kerosene made from algae, trainer soles out of rice husks – there seem to be an infinite number of ideas when it comes to replacing fossil, finite raw materials with renewable, seemingly infinite resources. The proponents of the economic approach summarised as the bioeconomy are not only focusing on using renewable raw materials. Rather, they regard their concept of “biologising the economy” as an opportunity to redesign the global system of production and consumption in a manner guaranteeing a secure sustainable base in every respect. This would be a gain for all – human beings and the environment, business and consumers, North and South. It indeed seems an ambitious project. But can the promises made in the context of the bioeconomy really  be kept and, above all, what conditions  have to be fulfilled?

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Bioenergy

The biogas technology is an alternative energy source for cooking and lighting for the rural farmers. In a lot of ways, the technology is reducing the heavy dependence of rural population on biomass as their main source of energy. In Kenya for instance, wood fuel accounts for about 68 per cent of the total primary energy source. And with only 15 per cent of the Kenyans having access to electricity, this results to heavy depletion of the country's forest reserves and thus serious environmental degradation.

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Cooperatives

The cooperative model has been sidelined in development cooperation for many years – for various reasons. On the one hand, cooperatives have been completely overestimated as an instrument and expected to solve a whole bunch of problems at one stroke. On the other hand, they were long misused for state purposes and have therefore been regarded with mistrust. The fact that the United Nations has declared 2012 the International Year of Cooperatives is a good opportunity to take a closer look at this special form of enterprise. We wish to give you an idea of the range of manifestations that the cooperative model has taken worldwide and of the role that cooperatives can play in overcoming rural poverty.

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Development cooperation

In this section you can find best practice examples, country studies and in-depth reports on German and international development cooperation.


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Ecosystem services

Since the 1990s, the concept of payments for ecosystem services has been gaining ground internationally. Today’s projects above all focus on achieving an optimal balance between the conservation of valuable ecosystems and poverty alleviation.

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Empowerment

Often, just a slight impulse is enough to empower people in the countries of the South to take their fate into their own hands and thus promote rural development.


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Family farming

2014 is the International Year of Family Farming. What makes family farms so important is that they are the main producers of food consumed locally in both developed and developing countries. There are around 525 million family farmers, and they account for well over half of all agricultural production. Thus they play a crucial role in maintaining global food security. To raise awareness of this significance, but also to show governments and society what they have to do to support family farms in performing this important role is the notion behind the United Nations’ proclaiming the International Year of Family Farming.


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Food losses

Roughly one third of the food produced globally for human consumption is lost or wasted – 1.3 billion tons per year. Even if these estimates are subject to numerous uncertainties, one thing is beyond doubt: every kilogramme of food that is produced but not consumed is one too many. For it embodies valuable, wasted resources such as land, water, agricultural inputs and energy, unnecessary CO2 emissions have been released into the atmosphere, farmers have lost not only income but also a valuable part of their nutrition, and consumers pay the increased prices that result. Our authors analyse the dimensions of these losses and the underlying complex web of causes and show how approaches have to be designed against the background of global challenges such as climate change and food security.


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Food prices

Just three years after the 2007/2008 food price crisis, prices for staple foods and agricultural commodities are on the rise again. There is cause for concern about food security. The authors in this issue of Rural 21 have explored the following questions: What are the reasons for the new price increases? How are affected countries and the international community of states responding to the situation? How can future food (price) crises be prevented?


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Fragility

Fragility is a huge challenge for rural development – and a very multifaceted one. Fragile states are lagging especially far behind in achieving the MDGs. In what ways do fragile states inhibit the development of rural regions, and how can these inhibitions be countered? What role can civil society play in overcoming internal or cross-border conflicts?


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    Gender

    In numerous publications, the FAO and the World Bank have emphasised that a country’s economic development could improve considerably if women were no longer barred access to important resources. However, despite individual success stories, there is still a long way to go.


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    Health

    New infectious animal diseases that affect public health and have the capacity to cross borders will continue to emerge around the globe. These diseases could potentially develop human-to-human transmissibility; thus they incite public fear. A proactive approach to disease risk management that combines foresight, prevention, impact mitigation, early detection, and swift and effective responses is warranted.

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    Knowledge sharing

    Over the last few decades, the range of agricultural extension and advisory services as well as the notions of which tools and methods are most suitable have seen fundamental changes. The concept of rural advising has long shifted from a linear transfer of technology to a pluralistic system of networks and innovations that brings the various stakeholders together and creates scope for mutual learning and exchange. More and more often, attempts are being made to move from the usual top-down transfer towards a demand-driven approach that actively involves farmers in the whole process – from prioritising and generating extension content to monitoring and evaluating the services. Regardless of the method or tool applied, it is ultimately always up to the farmers to make what they think is the right decision – and to hold responsibility for this decision.

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    Land tenure

    Land is probably the most valuable asset that rural communities possess in the developing world. In this section, we present examples of how conflicts over land tenure and access to land can be solved against the background of different legal frameworks.

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    Livestock

    The livestock sector creates livelihoods for an estimated one billion people world-wide. Not only is the consumption of milk, meat and eggs an important source of protein and micronutrients and hence a crucial pillar of food security for the rural poor in particular. For many people, the sale of animal products is the most important, if not the only, source of income. In addition, the animals are a significant multifunctional asset. They provide dung, raising soil fertility, they are simultaneously beasts of burden and tractors, and they represent “hoofed insurance”, not to mention the social prestige that they endow their owners with in several societies. In spite of its important role, animal production has been an unfavourable topic in the development debate – mainly because of its environmental impact. Our authors show the challenges confronting livestock keepers around the world and ways to address them.

     

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    Marginality

    In overcoming hunger and poverty, a special focus must be given to marginalised rural communities –  those people living on the edge of society and having no or limited access to markets or networks to fulfil their basic needs.

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    Marketing

    The reliable provision of high-value goods is just one aspect of developing value-added chains. It is equally important to create a stable demand. But consumer preferences first have to be established before marketing strategies can be focused.
     

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    Microfinance

    Agriculture is the basis for the livelihoods of the rural Congolese population. Yet despite its considerable potential, the sector and its many smallscale producers are barely served by microfinance institutions. The lack of adapted financial products for development of the farming sector is one of the reasons for the country’s continuing dependence on food imports.

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    Migration

    Many believe that owing to climate change, the world is also going to have accommodate a rising number of “climate refugees”. But what is the relation between climate change, environmental degradation and migration really like?


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